Moscow Kremlin: Troitskaya and Kutafya Towers
Nombre:Moscow Kremlin: Troitskaya and Kutafya Towers, 1:250, OREL
Otros: En inglés, alemán, ruso y polaco.
THE TROITSKAYA TOWER - the thoroughfare tower with the side-strelnitsa - the main tower on the western side of the Kremlin. Its construction in 1495-1499 by the architect Aleviz Friazin completed the erection of the fortifications from the side of the Neglinnaya River, later on - the Aleksandrovsky Garden. In 1516 from the Troitskaya Tower over the Neglinnaya River the Troitsky Bridge of stone was built, and then the Kutafia Tower was constructed. In the 16-17-th centuries the Troitsky Gates were considered the second of significance after the Spassky Gates - they were used for the entrance to the Kremlin to the yards of the patriarchs, the tsarinas and tsarevnas. The tower got its present name in 1658 of the Troitsky Coaching Inn in the Kremlin. Heretofore it was called Bogoyavlenskaya, Znamenskaya, Karetnaya, according to the churches situated in the Kremlin and the Karetny Yard. At the end of the 17-th century the tower was superstructed with a high pavilion, it got the architectural decor similar to that one of the Spasskaya Tower, and the chiming clock, which was not reconstructed after the fire in 1812. In 1870-1895, when the archive of the ministry of the imperial court was transferred to the tower, it was rebuilt, at that it lost many old details. In the 19-th century, after the Neglinnaya River was put into the tube, the ramp of white stone, leading to the Kutafia Tower, was replaced with the one of brick. In 1901 the new Troitsky Bridge was built. The height of the tower to the star from the side of the Kremlin is 65,65 m, with the star - 69,3 m. The height of the tower from the side of the Aleksandrovsky Garden is 76,35 m, with the star - 80 m. THE KUTAFIA TOWER (THE BRIDGEHEAD TOWER) - is the only one remained tower among the bridgehead towers of the Kremlin, which were used for the defense of the bridges, which led to the fortress. It was erected in 1516 under the guidance of the Milanese architect Aleviz Friazin. The low tower, surrounded with a moat and the river, with the only gates, which were closed tightly in the moments of danger, it was a threatening barrier for the besiegers of the fortress. The tower had no covering, it consisted of two battle tiers, and there were machicolations on the upper ground. In 1685 the tower was decorated with the laced decorative top. The lift bridges over the moat, that surrounded the tower, led to the lateral tower gates. Till present one can see on the lateral gates the gaps for the chains of the lifting gears. It is considered, that the name of the tower arises from the word "kut", that in different interpretations has the meaning of a shelter, a corner, a peninsula.
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